Меры и пропорции Морского собора в Кронштадте. Предварительные материалы. Часть 1

 

Для того, чтобы исследовать размеры и пропорции памятников архитектуры Москвы и Санкт-Петербурга, находящихся на дальнезападной окраине РФ, нужно иметь запредельное желание, близкое к маниакальному. Опыт показывает, что попытки произвести простейшие обмеры зачастую заканчиваются разборками в отделениях милиции-полиции. Всяческие официальные письма с гербовыми печатями, как правило, торжественно принимаются и регистрируются канцеляриями архивов, музеев, проектных организаций и прочих контор с последующим гробовым молчанием или отказом по самым незначительным причинам. Складывается впечатление, что столицы оккупированы какими-то марсианами и исследователю, для достижения результата, остается только осваивать методы партизанской борьбы с оккупантами.

Очень редко случаются крупные удачи, когда искомые обмеры безвозмездно дарит какой-либо сердобольный реставратор или, достает без всяких бюрократических фокусов, любящий крепкие напитки, администратор нижнего звена. Иногда искомые материалы выставляются в открытом доступе в Сети и тогда появляется возможность для работы. Недавно на сайте замечательного научно-производственного предприятия «Фотограмметрия», занимающего высококачественными лазерными обмерами памятников архитектуры, была выставлена брошюра о компании [1]. В представленных материалах оказался западный фасад Кронштадсткого Морского собора, с нанесенными на него отметками высот (Рис.1).


R1

 

R2

 


Если импортировать этот чертеж в среду какой-либо чертежной программы и настроить его по масштабу, то можно получить возможность измерить все необходимые вертикальные и горизонтальные размеры (Рис.2).

R3

 

 

Учитывая, что в период строительства собора официальные меры в царской России основывались на величине сажени (2,13м) и аршина (0,71м), произведем перевод размеров из метрической системы в саженно-аршинную (Рис.3).

 

R41

 

 

При этом получаем, что самые большие погрешности (красными цифрами показаны реальные обмеры, синие — расчетные размеры, производные от величины аршина) оказались не более 5 сантиметров (Рис.4).

R5

 

 

Результат перевода в аршинные меры вертикальных членений фасада представлен на Рис.5.

 

R6

 

 


Полученные размеры отлично корреспондируются с текстом справочника Г.Цитовича [2], в котором сообщается, что высота собора с крестом равняется 33 саженям (99 аршинам), а его ширина с крыльцами — 30 саженям (90 аршинам).

Дальнейшее исследование размеров и пропорций будет продолжено с предполагаемым нахождением новых обмерных данных. Однако даже на примере с западным фасадом можно убедиться, что архитектор собора В.А.Косяков, использовал величину аршина в качестве модуля для определения размеров основных габаритов и членений проектируемого объема.

Гипотетическая реконструкция проектных размеров дает возможность для последующего проведения  пропорционального анализа, который, предположительно, может стать основой для «прочтения» логики формообразования этого выдающего произведения архитектуры.




Библиографические ссылки:


1. Брошюра НПП «Фотограмметрия» - http://photogrammetria.ru/about/

2. Цитович Г. А. Храмы армии и флота. Пятигорск, 1913, 520+40+XIV с.

 


 

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